Rather unpopular with animal friends, hunting and fishing have usually better reputation among environmentalists. Misconceptions like the image of “lovers of nature ”of hunters and fishermen bear witness to the overall positive vision which hunters and fishermen benefit. However, is such conception fair? Do these activities promote rapprochement with nature? Are they really constructive for the environment, or even sometimes necessary as ecosystem management tools? This conference takes a closer look to different dynamics at play, including the legal context and its implications, addresses certain realities and contradictions, and offers a reflection on environmental consequences that pass unnoticed.